To update Google Chrome you go to: Settings => About Chrome. Google Chrome than checks if there is a new version available.
Recently I got this error: Update check failed to start – error code 3: 0x80080005. Reinstalling Google Chrome didn’t work.
It turns out it has to do with the Google Update Service that Google is running in the background on Windows 11 (see Services: run services.msc or just type services in Windows 11). This doesn’t get uninstalled if you also have Google Chrome Dev. After reinstalling both browsers Chrome and Chrome Dev the Google Update Service worked again.